My aim is to determine whether these processes testify to syntactic ergativity or accusativity in Adyghe, or whether they in fact shed no light at all on the question of Adyghe alignment behaviour. In the present paper, I base my analysis of syntactic ergativity on the evidence of valency-changing derivation only. It seems to me more justifiable to restrict myself to the data presented by derivational behaviour alone, since in a single article it is impossible to analyse the whole range of data related to ergativity in a polysynthetic language like Adyghe; moreover, the valency-changing derivational system may be organized ergatively, for example, while other syntactic processes are organized accusatively, or vice versa.
The processes analysed in this paper can be divided into two groups, based on the kind of information they provide about ergativity in Adyghe. First of all, there are derivations which can be regarded as semantically motivated though syntactic motivation can also be proposed for these processes. Secondly, there are derivations which are only compatible with transitive verbs, namely the inadvertitive and potential. These transformations are more significant for our analysis, since they show that Adyghe is syntactically ergative.
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When agreement is for number and gender but not person | SpringerLink
Moravia, I. Calvino, F. Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc. In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text. RU EN Search.
Advanced search. HSE University. RU EN. Higher School of Economics. Priority areas business informatics economics engineering science humanitarian IT and mathematics law management mathematics sociology state and public administration. Underground Capitalist in Soviet Russia. Below, IQ. The goal of the symposium is to exhibit cutting edge research at the CCDM, a leading cognitive neuroscience research centre in Russia, and LNC2, a leading European research centre in neuroeconomics, cognitive neuroscience and neural theory.
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When agreement is for number and gender but not person
Priority areas: humanitarian. Language: English. Full text PDF, Kb. Keywords: agreement ergativity Nakh-Daghestanian. This co-variance is called agreement. If we look further at verb agreement in English, we will see that present tense verbs typically have two inflected forms: one for third person singular, and another for every other combination of person and number, as shown in 1. Table 1. We can make the role of morphological properties a bit more explicit as illustrated in ex-runs and ex-run. These representations indicate that the verb agrees with its subject in person and number.
We use "3" as an abbreviation for 3rd person, "SG" for singular and "PL" for plural. Let's see what happens when we encode these agreement constraints in a context-free grammar. We will begin with the simple CFG in 5. The most straightforward approach is to add new non-terminals and productions to the grammar:. In place of a single production expanding S , we now have two productions, one covering the sentences involving singular subject NP s and VP s, the other covering sentences with plural subject NP s and VP s.
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In fact, every production in 5 has two counterparts in 6. With a small grammar, this is not really such a problem, although it is aesthetically unappealing. However, with a larger grammar that covers a reasonable subset of English constructions, the prospect of doubling the grammar size is very unattractive. Let's suppose now that we used the same approach to deal with first, second and third person agreement, for both singular and plural.
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This would lead to the original grammar being multiplied by a factor of 6, which we definitely want to avoid. Can we do better than this? In the next section we will show that capturing number and person agreement need not come at the cost of "blowing up" the number of productions. We spoke informally of linguistic categories having properties ; for example, that a noun has the property of being plural.
Let's make this explicit:. In 7 , we have introduced some new notation which says that the category N has a grammatical feature called NUM short for 'number' and that the value of this feature is pl short for 'plural'. We can add similar annotations to other categories, and use them in lexical entries:. Does this help at all? So far, it looks just like a slightly more verbose alternative to what was specified in 6. Things become more interesting when we allow variables over feature values, and use these to state constraints:.
We are using? In order to understand how these feature constraints work, it's helpful to think about how one would go about building a tree. Lexical productions will admit the following local trees trees of depth one :.
By contrast, 13a and 13b are prohibited because the roots of their subtrees differ in their values for the NUM feature; this incompatibility of values is indicated informally with a FAIL value at the top node. Combined with the production for expanding S , we derive the consequence that if the NUM value of the subject head noun is pl , then so is the NUM value of the VP 's head verb.
Grammar 8 illustrated lexical productions for determiners like this and these which require a singular or plural head noun respectively. However, other determiners in English are not choosy about the grammatical number of the noun they combine with. One way of describing this would be to add two lexical entries to the grammar, one each for the singular and plural versions of determiner such as the. However, a more elegant solution is to leave the NUM value underspecified and letting it agree in number with whatever noun it combines with.
Assigning a variable value to NUM is one way of achieving this result:. But in fact we can be even more economical, and just omit any specification for NUM in such productions. We only need to explicitly enter a variable value when this constrains another value elsewhere in the same production.
The grammar in 1. Example 1. In general, we can add as many features as we like. A final detail about 1. This "directive" tells the parser to take S as the start symbol for the grammar. In general, when we are trying to develop even a very small grammar, it is convenient to put the productions in a file where they can be edited, tested and revised.
We have saved 1. You can make your own copy of this for further experimentation using nltk. Calling the parser's parse method will iterate over the resulting parse trees; trees will be empty if the grammar fails to parse the input and will contain one or more parse trees, depending on whether the input is syntactically ambiguous or not.